Mustansiriya Medical Journal

SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 90--91

Role of debriefing and feedback in facilitating learning through simulation-based medical education


Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava1, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava2,  
1 Department of Community Medicine, Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
MD, FAIMER, PGDHHM, DHRM, FCS, ACME. Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) – Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603108, Tamil Nadu
India

Abstract

Clinical skills training has been acknowledged as one of the crucial domains of medical students' training and plays an important role in aiding them to become competent health-care personnel. The inclusion of simulation in medical curriculum has emerged as the approach to provide opportunities to undergraduate students to practice, learn, and assess skills in controlled settings and that too without harming the patients. Although mere participation in a simulation exercise might result in learning, the given feedback ascertains the attainment of the learning objectives. The conduction of the debriefing session after the simulation exercise is one of the most common ways to deliver feedback and it simultaneously gives the teacher an opportunity to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitude of the student, which contributed to the performance of the student in the simulation exercise. In conclusion, the components of feedback and debriefing are critical to ensure effective learning in simulation-based medical education. Thus, it is essential to plan for a feedback session and also train the teachers in the skills of administering feedback and debriefing and all the medical institutions implementing simulation-based education should strengthen the feedback element.



How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Role of debriefing and feedback in facilitating learning through simulation-based medical education.Mustansiriya Med J 2022;21:90-91


How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. Role of debriefing and feedback in facilitating learning through simulation-based medical education. Mustansiriya Med J [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 8 ];21:90-91
Available from: https://www.mmjonweb.org/text.asp?2022/21/1/90/349316


Full Text

 Introduction



Clinical skills training has been acknowledged as one of the crucial domains of medical students' training and plays an important role in aiding them to become competent health-care personnel.[1] However, the training process is not easy and it requires a systematic approach and careful organization for exposing the students to various skills (namely communication skills, problem-solving skills, critical thinking, clinical reasoning, procedural skills, and skills to work as a member of the health team, etc.,) expected from an undergraduate medical student upon completion of their training period.[2]

 Simulation in Medical Education



The inclusion of simulation in medical curriculum has emerged as the approach to provide opportunities to undergraduate students to practice, learn, and assess skills in controlled settings and that too without harming the patients.[1],[2] Moreover, the adoption of simulation-based teaching eliminates the issues of busy schedules of clinicians, who are finding it difficult to balance teaching and patient care, or the problem of shortage of real patients, who can be used for training medical students.[2] It has been repeatedly envisaged that simulation-based training delivers better outcomes (namely improvement of clinical skills, better management of real-life emergencies, comprehension, communication, decision-making skills, etc.) once they are integrated with the medical curriculum and not as an add-on feature.[1],[2],[3] Eventually, simulation-based training plays a critical role in improving the delivery of health-care services in a transparent, ethical, and quality-assured manner.[1],[2]

 Feedback in Simulation-Based Education



Feedback in medical education has been acknowledged as one of the most effective strategies to facilitate learning, and the same stands true in simulation-based education.[3] Although mere participation in a simulation exercise might result in learning, the given feedback ascertains the attainment of the learning objectives.[3],[4] It is quite obvious that it is not possible to discuss all the objectives in a single setting, and thus, the facilitator can also decide about the same in the planning session. The overall effectiveness of the feedback on simulation education can be enhanced by proper planning and determining the nature (such as oral or through a checklist or through the audio-visual recorded sessions which provides evidence for the actions of the student) and timing (immediate, real-time, or postexercise) of the feedback will be given to the medical students.[2],[3],[4]

It is very much essential that the facilitators should explain the rules and expectations from the students before the task and give them a feeling of nonthreatening and unbiased atmosphere.[5] The feedback can be given by the simulator during the simulation exercise or by the teacher who is supervising/monitoring the teaching–learning experience and significantly aids the trainee student to accomplish learning objectives. After the completion of the task, oral feedback can be administered by the teacher and the peers. The given feedback should be given keeping in mind the intended learning objectives of the session, with an aim to aid students to eventually accomplish the learning outcomes. Group feedback can also be given for common things, but the learning is maximum with specific feedback.[2],[3] The feedback can be brief and simple or detailed and complex depending on the nature of the activity. In the absence of feedback or debriefing sessions, the learning is left to chance, and as a teacher, we miss the opportunity to enhance learning.[2]

 Debriefing in Simulation-Based Education



The conduction of the debriefing session after the simulation exercise is one of the most common ways to deliver feedback and it simultaneously gives the teacher an opportunity to understand the knowledge, skills, and attitude of the student, which contributed to the performance of the student in the simulation exercise.[5] The debriefing helps the student to understand the differences between the observed actions and the expected actions, thereby making the learner to perform self-assessment.[5] It is always nice to start the feedback session by asking the students to share their thoughts on what went well, as it will promote self-assessment and reduce the impact of negative feedback.[4] Further, the students should also be motivated to reflect upon their performance and the ways in which they can improve their performance in subsequent sessions.[3]

 Conclusion



The components of feedback and debriefing are critical to ensure effective learning in simulation-based medical education. Thus, it is essential to plan for a feedback session and also train the teachers in the skills of administering feedback and debriefing, and all the medical institutions implementing simulation-based education should strengthen the feedback element.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

References

1So HY, Chen PP, Wong GK, Chan TT. Simulation in medical education. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2019;49:52-7.
2Motola I, Devine LA, Chung HS, Sullivan JE, Issenberg SB. Simulation in healthcare education: A best evidence practical guide. AMEE Guide No. 82. Med Teach 2013;35:e1511-30.
3Grande B, Kolbe M, Biro P. Difficult airway management and training: Simulation, communication, and feedback. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2017;30:743-7.
4Riaz S, Jaradat AA, Gutierrez R, Garadah TS. Outcome of undergraduate medical education using medical simulation according to students' feedback. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2020;20:e310-5.
5Burns CL. Using debriefing and feedback in simulation to improve participant performance: An educator's perspective. Int J Med Educ 2015;6:118-20.